JAAST Table of Content: February 2(1)

Research Articles


Mark Kwame Offei1* Irene S. Egyir1, George T-M Kwadzo1 and Olufunke Cofie2   pp. 1 - 9

Financial feasibility of producing a urine-based fertiliser for vegetable farming in Accra, Ghana



The continual cropping of vegetable lands in the city of Accra necessitates the application of fertiliser in order to improve and sustain production. This paper addresses the question as to whether it is feasible to up-scale and use sanitised human urine as an alternative low-cost fertiliser for vegetable farming in Accra. The study used survey data conducted by IWMI on some urinals located in the Central Business District of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) and on a demonstration project of the use of urine to fertilize cabbage together with data obtained by conducting a questionnaire survey of 300 vegetable farmers. The results of the study showed that it is capital intensive to establish the urine collection and reuse system in the city of Accra considering the logistics needed. The cost-benefit analysis (including a sensitivity analysis) showed that the investment can be financially feasible for a profit-oriented entrepreneur and AMA only if the discount rate is 20% and lower with a urine user fee of GH¢ 0.10 per visit and sale of urine to farmers at GH¢0.30 per jerry-can (20 litres) as it gave NPVs, BCRs and IRRs (GH¢ 8,147.79, 1.03 and 22.65%) and (GH¢ 104901.34, 1.49 and 51.45%) with payback periods of 5.44years and 2.91 years respectively. The Partial Budgeting Analysis showed that in one cropping cycle a cabbage farmer in Accra of farm size 0.02 ha with a planting distance of 0.45m × 0.60m would make a savings of GH¢24.59 when he pays for and uses sanitized urine as an alternative to chemical fertiliser (say NPK). Since it is financially feasible to establish and operate a human urine collection and reuse system in the Accra Metropolitan Area, the metro assembly should partner financing institutions such as the Agricultural Development Bank and start with a pilot project, in that way confidence will be instilled in the private business sector to participate later.

Keywords:  financial feasibility, sanitised urine-fertiliser, vegetable farming, Accra


Shaker, M. Arafat1 and EL-Sayed M. E.2  pp. 10 - 19

Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Increasing the Chilling Requirements and its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil



The objective of this work was study that the effect chilling requirements by using some natural (Girdling at first week of January and Kaolin sprayed at rate 5% mid. December) and chemical (Calcium carbonate, sprayed at rate 5% mid. December, Naphthalene acetic acid at 100ppm mid. December, and Boric acid (17.50%) at 300ppm in first week of March) on oil yield, quality indices, minor components and fatty acids composition of olive Picual cv. during seasons 2012-2013. Yield/tree, fruit weight, seed weight, flesh weight, flesh/fruit weight, flesh/stone, moisture and oil contents (%) were determined. Quality indices (acid value, peroxide value, absorbance at K232nm, K270 nm and Ģk, value), sensory evaluation, total polyphenol, tocopherol, better index at K225, pigments content, oxidative stability by Rancimat method at 100oC, and Fatty acid composition by GC of virgin olive oil extracted from Picual variety were determined. Results indicated that the treated tree (Picual cv.) by Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin gave a higher content in oil percentage/tree. Also, same treated samples gave best values in quality indices, total polyphenol, tocopherol and oxidative stability compared with untreated and treated samples with calcium carbonate. On the other hand, the treated samples by Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin surpassed on untreated and treated samples with calcium carbonate in oleic acid levels. Generally, can be used (Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin) to increase the productivity of olive trees Picual cv. and also improve the quality attributes of the oil extracted. Also these treatments increased the oleic acid more than untreated sample.

Keywords: Chilling requirements, Picual variety, oil content, Fatty acid composition, polyphenols, oxidative stability.